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Electricity grids are key to renewable energy distribution



There is an abundance of clean, renewable, wind and solar energy that can produce green hydrogen and electricity to charge vehicle batteries, but there is no transport infrastructure to support rapid energy exchanges, independent of the privately owned grid in the UK.





Electricity is the most convenient way of transmitting clean, alternative energy, from the point of origin (conversion from natural harvesting) to the end user. We believe that low cost energy is a basic human right, that every generator and supplier should be working toward as a United Nations sustainable development goal. Failing which, a nationalized grid should be established, to seek to provide cheaper (even subsidized) energy in the event that energy equality may deprive poorer citizens of a reasonable quality of life.


There should be no limitation on private generators genuinely competing with one another, and there should be no monopoly situation concerning grid (supply network) infrastructure, such as may generate substantial profits for external (and overseas) industry investors, likely to cause hardship to residents in any nation. As in one external nation, sucking R&D funds from another.


Profits from any geographical region must remain within that administrative area, to be re-invested in capacity, storage, and delivery.


Fortunately for humans, electricity is linked to magnetism, a force that can be harnessed to attract or repel, and convert a generated or stored potential difference (such as in batteries) from electrons traveling in a metal conductor, to rotational or linear movement.


This incredible property gives us electric motors and generators. We take it for granted, but it is a miracle of nature. We are living in the modern age of electricity. Where energy security is as yet, unsecured in April 2024.




Onshore wind and solar could provide 226TWh of electricity without impairing food production, says Friends of the Earth.

England could produce 13 times more renewable energy than it does now, while using less than 3% of its land, analysis has found.

Onshore wind and solar projects could provide enough electricity to power all the households in England two and a half times over, the research by Exeter University, commissioned by Friends of the Earth (FoE), suggested.

Currently, about 17 terawatt hours of electricity a year comes from homegrown renewables on land. But there is potential for 130TWh to come from solar panels, and 96TWh from onshore wind.

These figures are reached by only taking into account the most suitable sites, excluding national parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty, higher grade agricultural land and heritage sites.

Some commentators have argued that solar farms will reduce the UK’s ability to grow its own food, but the new analysis suggests there is plenty of land that can be used without impairing agricultural production. More land is now taken up by golf courses than solar farms, and developers can be required to enhance biodiversity through simple measures such as maintaining hedgerows and ponds.

Onshore windfarms were in effect banned in 2015 by the then prime minister, David Cameron. Rishi Sunak last year claimed to make moves towards lifting the ban, through small changes to the planning regulations, but campaigners say they were ineffectual and real planning reform is needed. No plans were submitted for new windfarms in England last year, and few new developments are coming forward, despite high gas prices, rising bills and onshore wind being the cheapest form of electricity generation.

The calculations of the land needed exclude rooftop solar panels. Ministers have resisted calls for solar panels to be made mandatory on new-build housing. Kitting out a new-build home with renewables, high-grade insulation and other low-carbon features costs less than £5,000 for a housing developer, but retrofitting it to the same standard costs about £20,000, with the cost borne by the householder. Housing developers are among the largest donors to the Conservative party.

FoE has produced a map that shows potential sites for onshore wind and solar generation. North Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire show particularly good potential. The sites total about 374,900 hectares (926,400 acres), or about 2.9% of the available land in England.

Tony Bosworth, climate campaigner at Friends of the Earth, said: “Unleashing the UK’s immense potential to generate cheap, clean homegrown renewables is essential to bring down our energy bills for good and meeting the UK’s vital international target to reduce carbon emissions by two-thirds by 2030. But the current government’s record on boosting our energy security through renewables is woefully inadequate and has left the UK lagging far behind in the global race to a zero-carbon economy. Meanwhile, Labour is looking increasingly shaky on climate after rolling back its planned investment in green growth.”

He called on all the main parties to commit to lifting restrictions on onshore windfarms in England; for local authorities to identify suitable areas for renewable development; for upgrades to the electricity grid to enable the vast expansion of renewable energy; and for tougher requirements on renewable developers to protect biodiversity.

Local communities can also be helped to benefit from renewable developments, for instance through being offered cheaper power or a share in the development.

Bosworth said: “We urgently need our political leaders to pull their heads out of the sand and produce a strong, ambitious and fair new climate plan that lifts the barriers to onshore wind and solar power and secures investment in the infrastructure needed to support the switch to renewables. These are win-win policies for creating long-term jobs, boosting our ailing economy and protecting our planet for future generations.”

A Department for Energy Security and Net Zero spokesperson said: “Onshore wind power capacity has almost quadrupled since 2010 and renewables account for nearly half of our electricity, up from just 7%. We’ve also streamlined planning rules in England to make it easier for councils to identify suitable land for onshore wind. Our latest renewables auction has its largest ever budget of £1bn, including a record £800m pot for offshore wind, to further strengthen our world-leading clean energy sector, supporting a range of renewables from onshore wind to solar.”




The UK saw the highest ever share of electricity generation by renewables last year, according to Government figures.

The Energy Department (DESNZ) revealed on Thursday that this happened as fossil fuel electricity generation hit its lowest ever share. In 2023, renewable generation reached 135 Terawatt hours (TWh), which was similar to 2022 levels due to challenging weather conditions.

However, its share of overall generation rose to a record of 47.3%, up from 41.5% in 2022. Renewables also set a quarterly record of 51.5% of UK electricity generation in the last three months of 2023. This is the first time more than half of all UK generation came from renewable sources.

DESNZ said these records were "partially due to a fall in overall electricity demand and reduced domestic generation due to higher imports of electricity". Energy prices reached record highs in late 2022 and didn't start to drop until July 2023, causing households and businesses to reduce their electricity use.


At the same time, UK imports "increased significantly in 2022", DESNZ said, due to a boost in French nuclear power output. As a result, less gas, which is the UK's main form of generation, was needed to meet the remaining electricity demand in the UK.

Fossil fuel generation is set to hit a record low in 2023, the lowest since the 1950s, with its share of power production dropping to 36.3%. At the same time, total UK electricity generation fell by 11.0% to 285.6 TWh in 2023, the lowest level since 1983.

As fossil fuel power production decreased, wind power's share reached a record high of 28.7% in 2023, contributing to an overall record for renewable energy's share. In particular, offshore wind saw its share of UK electricity production jump to 17.3% last year, up from 13.8% in 2022.

The last three months of 2023 also set a quarterly record for offshore wind power, "largely driven by the 0.8 GW in new capacity," according to DESNZ. Despite fewer average daily sunshine hours in 2023, solar power production increased by 4.1% to 13.8 TWh, the highest ever, reflecting increased solar capacity, DESNZ said.

On the other hand, nuclear power production fell by 15% to 40.7 TWh, a record low due to reduced capacity and "all operational sites experiencing outages throughout 2023", it added. However, despite this decrease, low carbon power which includes renewables and nuclear reached a record high share of 61.5% last year, the data shows.

These figures are part of a trend that has seen renewable energy outperform fossil fuels for the third year running. "These official figures show that renewables have outstripped fossil fuels yet again and provided more of the UK's annual electricity needs than ever before, with wind leading the way as our biggest source of clean power."

"With renewables, we can strengthen Britain's energy security with the cheapest sources of new power available for bill payers. That's why we're urging ministers to work with us to increase the number shovel-ready renewable energy projects which the Government could bring forward through this year's auction for Contracts for Difference auction."

"This will enable us to maximise deployment, strengthen skills and grow new supply chains, as we continue to create jobs all around the country."

The figures also showed that total UK energy production in 2023 hit a record low of 100.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent since the published series began in 1948. This was also 66% lower than in 1999 when UK production peaked.


The Department for Energy Security and Net Zero (DESNZ) is a department of His Majesty's Government established on 7 February 2023 after a government reshuffle, the first by prime minister Rishi Sunak. The new department took on the energy policy responsibilities of the former Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy (BEIS).









Electric motors are perhaps most important to modern society for transportation and mobility security. Up to now we have been reliant on steam and internal combustion engines (ICE) for our deliveries and trips to school and the supermarkets and for ships that transport goods from one country to another.


ICE engines convert petrol and diesel fuels into rotational movement via pistons and crankshafts using controlled detonations, that burn with compressed air to release carcinogenic exhaust fumes that also contain particulates. They are engineering marvels without any doubt, but they are also dangerous to life on earth where they cause global warming and lung cancer.








With the amount of incoming solar radiation (insolation) that hits the world in one hour there is enough energy to power the world for one year. With the addition of solar panels all around the world reduces pressure and the need to produce more oil. Indeed, we would not need oil at all. Yeh baby!


The price of photovoltaic panels has been reducing as demand improved production methods and the efficiency is climbing, making them an attractive proposition for off-grid supplies for home use and for solar farms where electricity is produced commercially. We would suggest that every nation should be self-sufficient in the manufacture and supply of photovoltaic panels. No nation should be dependent on cheap imports that upset the balance of payments. This is a dangerous reliance that could lead to World War Three, as aggressors target weaker manufacturing nations, stockpiling cash for weapons and cheap loans, aimed at buying into other countries. By way of an economic takeover, that can be just as effective as a physical invasion with armed troops. China is the most aggressive country, using these tactics to assert their influence around the world. This is an overt act of war, that many obtuse governments appear to ignore, mesmerized by the prospect of profits over national security.


Evacuated tubes and other solar heat collectors and concentrators can provide significant quantities of heat for homes and factories. Again, these should be manufactured locally. Such as in Europe, for European nations. In the USA for North American states. In India for local Asian nations, etc.


The only deviation from these general rules might be where smaller countries may have a trade deal, aimed at defeating Chinese globalization and financial world domination. As one glaring example. Equally as dangerous as Russian (Imperialist) expansion into Europe, designed to destabilize NATO alliances. Russia and China being communist allies, with long term political agendas. And please note, these are not the views of the Climate Trust. These are generally held views, expounded by the media in most Democracies. China and Russia do not have free elections. They are dictatorships.



In the short term we are reliant on fossil fuels for as long as it takes us to move into a sustainable age with a truly circular economy for harmonious living. Long-term measures to increase energy security center on reducing dependence on any one source of imported energy, increasing the number of suppliers of renewable energy resources, and reducing overall demand through energy conservation measures.


We might also enter into international agreements to undermine fossil fuel energy trading monopolies and assure that everyone has the right to cheap and clean renewable energy, as per United Nations SDG 7.




If we want a practical EV infrastructure solution by 2050 starting within the next 10-15 years to meet the 2030 transition, to 2035 zero emission targets of most countries party to the Paris Accord, we need  to make the most of electricity and our distribution networks for load levelling of renewable solar and wind generated electricity. But in the UK, other European countries, and in the USA, they are going backwards by doing nothing.






SWITCHES & BULBS - Where would we be without electric lighting. A battle royal ensued in the law courts and Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan slogged it out in the London High Court, ending with the combatants working together as the Edison & Swan United Electric Light Co.






Duke Energy Corporation, DUK, N. Carolina, USA

Dominion Energy Inc., Richmond, Virginia

EDF Électricité de France SA




Exelon Corporation EXC, Chicago, USA

GE General Electric


KEPCO Korean Electric Power Corporation

National Electric Grid & Central Electricity Authority (India)

National Energy Board (Canada)

National Grid plc (formerly Central Electricity Generating Board UK)

Next Era Energy Inc. Florida, USA
Scottish & Southern Energy

Southern Company, Atlanta, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, USA

State Grid Corporation of China

TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company





If properly planned and operated, dispersed storage and generation may provide benefits to distribution systems by reducing capacity requirements, improving reliability, and reducing losses. Dispersed-storage-and-generation technologies include hydroelectric systems, diesel generators, wind-electric systems, solar-electric systems, batteries, storage space and water heaters, storage air conditioners, hydroelectric pumped storage, photovoltaics, and fuel cells.


As a result of the application of deregulation in the electric power sector, a new identity appeared in the electric power system map known as “Distributed Generation” (DG). Instead of using 100 MW to GW sized units located far from the loads, disbursed generation sites might be kW to MW scale - located closer to natural resources and local loads.


Distribution networks were initially designed as passive systems, which provided one-directional links between the transmission network and electricity end users. The introduction of DG is resulting in many distribution networks becoming energy harvesting systems, with much more variability and bidirectional power flows where there are high penetrations of DG.


Those who hold the power and wealth should consider re-investing in alternatives as they head towards the sustainable economics of zero growth.




Unfortunately, where SDG 7 of the United Nations' sustainability development goals, is to provide "clean affordable energy for all," electricity prices vary considerably from region to region based on local policies, profit ratios for shareholders, lack of investment in renewables, reliance on fossil fuels. And of course natural resources. The most important of all being hydro electricity for the fortunate few.


There is not a lot of point transitioning to renewables if we do not tackle the drastic price variations, due to policies and infrastructure deficiencies. We will have the same problems, just new taskmasters. We need new policies. So please write to your Councilors, Members of Parliament and other Heads of State. Petition, and if necessary, march for fair energy prices with policies to match. Be careful though in Russia, China, Iran, etc. Where there are no free elections, and dissent is rewarded with the Gulag, poisoning, or instant beheadings. Nations who abuse Human Rights, should not be able to compete in energy markets with those who uphold Human Rights. This includes imports and exports. These are the opinions of the writer, not necessarily those of the Foundation.



Despite abundant natural resources, the African continent faces significant challenges in energy access. As of 2021, 43% of Africans - approximately 600 million people - lack access to electricity, with 590 million residing in sub-Saharan Africa.





In the European Union (EU), household electricity prices have seen fluctuations. In the first half of 2023, prices increased in most EU Member States compared to the same period in 2022. Here are some highlights:

- Highest Prices: The highest household electricity prices were observed in the Netherlands, Belgium, Romania, and Germany.

- Lowest Prices: Bulgaria, Hungary, and Malta had the lowest prices.

- Average EU Price: The EU average price for household electricity in the first half of 2023 was €0.2890 per kilowatt-hour (kWh).

Factors influencing these prices include geopolitical situations, national energy mix, import diversification, network costs, environmental protection costs, severe weather conditions, and levels of excise and taxation.

See the performance league table for electricity prices in Europe, ranking countries from the cheapest to the most expensive based on historic information. Keep in mind that these rankings are subject to change over time, but as of the data provided, here’s a top ten list:

1. Bulgaria: €0.1137 per kWh (average household price)
2. Hungary: €0.1161 per kWh (average household price)
3. Malta: €0.1256 per kWh (average household price)
4. Lithuania: €0.1269 per kWh (average household price)
5. Italy: €0.1850 per kWh (average household price)
6. France: €0.1886 per kWh (average household price)
7. United Kingdom: €0.262 per kWh (average household price)

8. Spain: €0.2890 per kWh (EU average price)

9. Germany: €0.4125 per kWh (average household price)

10. Romania: €0.4199 per kWh (average household price)


These prices do not include a sometimes exorbitant standing charges, in the UK being between £0.40 - 0.54 pence per day. It's a extra tax on low energy users, who pay more pro-rata.




You may be asking why people should profit from energy and is that legal? Mostly, energy companies have shareholders who derive an income based on share dividends. Sometimes those energy companies would rather they grab a nice profit for themselves, rather than invest in renewables and infrastructure (storage), to make electricity cheaper for their customers. If this is happening in your region, it is because politicians are allowing it to continue. Whereas, policy changes, as statutory requirements - making it law, could force suppliers to invest first, with dividends later. Provided that a good level of investment has been made. Otherwise, suppliers, and of course the infrastructure network (in the UK Power Networks) should lose their franchise.




The alternative is nationalization, where there are no dividends or shareholders to leach off a captive market. Then, the matter of procurement fraud may rise to the surface as something to keep an eye open for. As in tender bids and transparent tendering. A State operated Grid, Power Storage, and State operated Power Stations, Solar and Wind Farms, would seem to be the only way that SDG7 might be complied with.






ELECTRIC BAKERY - The earliest surviving generating station, dating from C. 1900, with battery based load levelling as the core technology, coupled to a 110 volt DC generator, is in the little village of Herstmonceux, Sussex.





In the United States, electricity prices vary by state. Here are some examples of average residential electricity prices in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for select cities:

- New England (e.g., Connecticut): Around 27 to 28 cents per kWh
- Middle Atlantic (e.g., New York): Around 22 to 23 cents per kWh
- South Atlantic (e.g., Florida): Around 14 to 15 cents per kWh
- West North Central (e.g., Iowa): Around 11 to 12 cents per kWh


These prices depend on factors such as supply, demand, infrastructure, and local policies.


In Canada, the average residential cost of electricity is approximately $0.192 per kWh, including both fixed and variable costs. However, this price decreases to $0.155 per kWh if you exclude the territories.


Here’s a breakdown of average total electricity costs by province based on a monthly consumption of 1,000 kWh:

- Quebec: The cheapest electricity prices in Canada at around $0.078 per kWh.
- Northwest Territories: The most expensive electricity prices at around $0.41 per kWh.
- Factors affecting these prices include the energy mix, distribution costs, and local policies.


As you may imagine, if you are running a business that uses lots of energy. Location is an important factor in remaining competitive. Industry could be based near the Sahara desert, where massive solar installations make sense. And yet, there is little by way of industrial activity. Africa, is thus a blossoming energy market. Recognised in both the EGYPES and ADIPEC energy shows. With many other events concentrating on renewables like green hydrogen and electrolyzers.

Let’s create a performance league table for electricity prices, ranking countries from the cheapest to the most expensive based on the information available on the web. Remember that these rankings are subject to change over time, but as of the data available, here’s a top ten list:

Sudan: USD 0.006 per kWh (household price)
Kyrgyzstan: USD 0.049 per kWh (household price)
Bulgaria: USD 0.078 per kWh (average household price)
Hungary: USD 0.078 per kWh (average household price)
Malta: USD 0.078 per kWh (average household price)
Kazakhstan: USD 0.079 per kWh (household price)
Uzbekistan: USD 0.080 per kWh (household price)
Tajikistan: USD 0.081 per kWh (household price)
Turkmenistan: USD 0.082 per kWh (household price)
Moldova: USD 0.083 per kWh (household price)

Please note that these rankings are based on the data searched earlier and may not reflect the current situation. Factors such as subsidies, energy mix, and economic conditions contribute to these prices. We’ll explore the means of electricity generation in more depth later.

Let’s explore the electricity prices in Sudan and Kyrgyzstan, along with their potential connections to sustainability and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7).






As of June 2023, the price of electricity in Sudan is remarkably low. Here are the details:

Household Price: SDG 5.000 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) or approximately USD 0.006 per kWh.
Business Price: SDG 26.000 per kWh or approximately USD 0.029 per kWh.
These prices include all components of the electricity bill, such as the cost of power, distribution, and taxes. For comparison, the average global electricity price during that period was around USD 0.154 per kWh for households and USD 0.151 per kWh for businesses.


In Kyrgyzstan, the electricity prices are also notably low. As of June 2023:

Household Price: KZT 22.070 per kWh or approximately USD 0.049 per kWh.
Business Price: KZT 28.850 per kWh or approximately USD 0.064 per kWh.


Again, these prices include all components of the electricity bill. Kyrgyzstan’s low electricity prices contribute to its energy affordability for both households and businesses. However, it’s essential to understand the context behind these prices.


Energy Mix: Both Sudan and Kyrgyzstan have diverse energy sources, including hydropower and other renewables. Hydropower, being a renewable resource, often leads to lower electricity costs, begging the question why is electricity priced higher in Canada.


Subsidies: Governments in these countries may provide subsidies to keep electricity prices affordable for citizens. These subsidies can help mitigate the cost of power generation.


Economic Factors: Economic conditions, currency exchange rates, and overall development levels influence energy prices. Lower costs of production and distribution can contribute to lower prices.


Historical Context: Historical energy policies and infrastructure investments play a role. For example, Kyrgyzstan has a long-standing tradition of hydropower development.
Connection to SDG 7:

SDG 7 aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Both Sudan and Kyrgyzstan’s low electricity prices align with this goal. By providing affordable energy, they contribute to economic development, poverty reduction, and improved living standards. However, it’s essential to balance affordability with environmental sustainability and climate change mitigation.

Efforts to achieve SDG 7 involve enhancing energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy sources, and fostering international cooperation. Both countries can continue working toward sustainable energy systems while ensuring affordability for their citizens.



Let’s explore the historical electricity prices in the United Kingdom from 1994 to 2024. While I don’t have access to real-time data, I can provide information based on available historical records.


In September 2022, the United Kingdom experienced an all-time high in electricity prices, reaching £580.55 GBP/MWh.
As of March 2024, the price has decreased significantly to £66.05 GBP/MWh, but the retail prices do not reflect the plunge in generating costs. Except for recent reduction in the price cap from April 2024, that bears no relationship to the fall in energy generation.


If you want to learn more, write to your MP, but watch an episode of 'Yes Minister' first to understand why you'll get little response. Other sources of information include the Office for National Statistics (ONS) provides data on electricity prices, where you may find historical data in their Electricity Price dataset. The ONS also tracks percentage changes over 12 months for electricity prices using the Retail Price Index (RPI). The latest data for February 2024 shows a decrease in electricity prices compared to the previous year. They deliberately do not provide information for previous years, to hide the facts.


The UK government periodically releases energy trends and price statistics. The Energy Trends and Prices statistical release for January 2024 provides detailed information. Once again, as in 'Yes Minister' the almost total lack of transparency is a way of protecting subsequent Government from having to answer awkward questions.

Energy prices are influenced by various factors, including supply and demand, fuel costs, infrastructure investments, government policies, and market dynamics. The old blue tie brigade do not want to rock any boats.



Let’s convert the given prices from British Pounds (GBP) per megawatt-hour (MWh) to Euros (EUR) per kilowatt-hour (kWh):

£580.55 GBP/MWh:

Convert to Euros: £580.55 × 1.17309 (exchange rate) = €679.15 EUR/MWh
Divide by 1000 to get the price per kWh: €679.15 / 1000 = €0.67915 EUR/kWh

£66.05 GBP/MWh:

Convert to Euros: £66.05 × 1.17309 (exchange rate) = €77.25 EUR/MWh
Divide by 1000 to get the price per kWh: €77.25 / 1000 = €0.07725 EUR/kWh
Therefore, the converted prices are approximately:

£580.55 GBP/MWh = €0.67915 EUR/kWh
£66.05 GBP/MWh = €0.07725 EUR/kWh

You may have noticed the disparity between the current UK supply rates, .25 to .26 pence per kWh, compared with the purchase price .07725. There is a whopping .18275 pence price differential per kWh - generating massive share dividends, as it appears. We wonder how much the Grid (power Networks UK) charge for using their infrastructure? When there is already a gigantic standing charge of some .45 - .54 pence per day. Presumably, the payment for renting the Grid power-lines and substation distribution network?

Please note that exchange rates can fluctuate, so it’s essential to check real-time rates for precise conversions. Anyway you look at it, in the EU consumers are being ripped off, to benefit rich shareholding investors. Maybe, it's time for change? To allow the people, to take back control of their energy prices. We cannot help but make a reference to Financial Slavery at this point. Because, high food and energy prices lead to food poverty and energy poverty. Kicking in other UN SDGs: 1, 2, 3 and 10, 11, 12.



Herstmonceux Museum in Lime Park, East Sussex, England


HERSTMONCEUX MUSEUM - Opening its doors to the public in 2024, the oldest surviving generating utility with local grid stabilisation features three full size electric vehicles and several solar powered model boats.




The deployment of renewable energy technologies increases the diversity of electricity sources and contributes to the flexibility of an international infrastructure system and its resistance to central shocks, especially where off-grid installations are widely deployed, but can be grid connected.


It is likely to be that at some point in the future we will no longer need power stations that run on coal, oil or nuclear fuels. We will have dragged ourselves out of the fossil fuel cesspit and taken power generation from the fortunate few who profit from geological deposits, to the masses who only need a space to mount the harvesting medium for energy independence.


For those countries whose reliance on imported gas is a significant energy security issue, renewable technologies can provide a level playing field.

As the fossil resources that have been so crucial to human advancement start declining in numbers, countries will be glad that they changed over to renewable energy. We hope that the World Energy Council come to the same conclusion.














According to the 2018 Forbes calculation of net market capitalization, assets, sales and profit as the utilities with the financial muscle to develop innovative zero emission transportation and renewable energy load levelling solutions: 


EDF Électricité de France SA




GE General Electric


KEPCO Korean Electric Power Corporation

National Electric Grid & Central Electricity Authority (India)

National Energy Board (Canada)

National Grid plc (formerly Central Electricity Generating Board UK)
Scottish & Southern Energy

State Grid Corporation of China

TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company










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