Please use our A-Z INDEX to navigate this site where page links may lead to other sites, or see HOME





HOW SMART IS YOUR ROBOT VEHICLE - There are six levels (1-6) of possible automation for autonomous land vehicles, with L0, being no assistance for a human operator, except perhaps for a SatNAv, to help a person find their way, and a smartphone, for when they get lost, or breakdown..




Level 3 - Conditional automation

In a Level 3 vehicle, some modes take full control in certain driving environments and phases, but the driver must be able to regain control if the car requires it. The car can change lanes by itself and react according to events that occur around it. However, this level is very often neglected by manufacturers who typically go directly to level 4, because they consider it too risky for people in the car (many studies have shown that partial autonomy can be very difficult for drivers to understand, hence adding to confusion, rather than aiding).

The typical example of level 3 is the autonomous car driving on a highway but which is unable to coordinate arriving at a toll; it requires a few tens of seconds of advanced warning before the driver can intervene. If the driver doesn't intervene, the car is able to drive itself to safety, by using the emergency stop function.

This is called the "Eyes Off" function meaning that the driver can intermittently, and under some special cases, no longer pay attention to the road. It's very useful on long journeys.

Level 0 - No Automation
Level 1 - Driver Assistance
Level 2 - Partial automation
Level 3 - Conditional automation
Level 4 - High automation
Level 5 : Full automation

Level 6 : L5 Fully autonomous AI refuelling

As of 6th June 2021, no car manufacturer has yet reached levels 5 or 6.





At the moment, the only concept that would be capable of servicing fully L5 vehicles would be the proposed SmartNet mult-ifuel service stations, where such vehicles will eventually have no human operators to plug-in charge, or fill up with hydrogen from the pumps.


Allied to automatic vending, is PAYD (Pay As You Drive) billing, also seen as a necessary function for autonomous, unmanned, self-driving, robotic vehicles of the future.









SMART SERVICING FOR ROBOTS - Those looking for a future proofed infrastructure for renewably sourced energy for electric robotic vehicles, may want to consider the new breed of self driving passenger cars, taxis, and commercial trucks that will benefit from automated energy vending if they are to be fully autonomous in operation over long distances or for round the clock city duties - most especially unmanned robotic taxis and freight trucks.





Please use our A-Z INDEX to navigate this site



This website is provided on a free basis to promote zero emission transport from renewable energy in Europe and Internationally. Copyright Universal Smart Batteries and Climate Change Trust 2021. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom.